A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs, usually fifty. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format. One Day International matches are also called "Limited Overs Internationals (LOI)", although this generic term may also refer to Twenty20 International matches.
The international one-day game is a late twentieth-century development. The first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, instead, play a one-off one day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets.
In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket (WSC) competition, and it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, and, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, and on-screen graphics. The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. Kerry Parker was credited with making cricket a more professional sport.
In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team gets to bat only a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was generally 60 overs per side, and matches were also played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs.
Simply stated, the game works as follows:
- An ODI is contested by 2 teams of 11 players each.
- The Captain of the side winning the toss chooses to either bat or bowl (field) first.
- The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings. The innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" (i.e., 10 of the 11 batting players are "out") or all of the first side's allotted overs are used up.
- Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs (fewer in the case of rain-reduced matches and in any event generally no more than one fifth or 20% of the total overs per innings).
- The team batting second tries to score more than the target score in order to win the match. Similarly, the side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team for less than the target score in order to win.
- If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all of its wickets or exhausts all its overs, then the game is declared a tie (regardless of the number of wickets lost by either team).
Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions, then the total number of overs may be reduced; when this occurs, the target in the run change, or the overall result may be determined by the Duckworth-Lewis method. Where insufficient overs are played to apply the Duckworth-Lewis method, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches, particularly in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out – either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match which was rain-interrupted.
Fielding restrictions and powerplays
The bowling side is subjected to fielding restrictions during an ODI, in order to prevent teams from setting wholly defensive fields. Fielding restrictions dictate the maximum number of fieldsmen allowed to be outside the thirty-yard circle.
Under current ODI rules, there are three levels of fielding restrictions:
- In the first ten overs of an innings (the mandatory powerplay or Powerplay 1), the fielding team may have at most two fieldsmen outside the thirty-yard circle. Additionally, at least two fieldsmen must be in close catching positions, such as slip, gully or short point.
- In two five-over blocks, known as the batting powerplay and bowling powerplay, the fielding team may have at most three fieldsmen outside the thirty-yard circle, but there is no requirement for close catching fieldsmen. The batsmen and the bowling captain have discretion on when the batting and bowling powerplays are taken respectively. These powerplays must be completed between the 16th and 40th overs of an uninterrupted innings, and neither team can choose not to take its powerplay.
- For the remainder of the innings, the fielding team may have at most five fieldsmen outside the thirty-yard circle. But from the 2013, The new ODI rules where only four fielders are allowed outside the 30-yard circle at all times, as opposed to the five, had come into play- although it was critically claimed to be a bad decision, especially for Bowlers.-In return to this new rule, ICC granted the Bowlers a token of gesture - by giving one new ball at each end and increased the number of bouncers per over from one to two.
Where a match is shortened by rain, the duration of the powerplays is adjusted to equal 40% of the team's overs wherever possible.
Fielding restrictions were first introduced in 1992, with only two fieldsmen allowed outside the circle in the first fifteen overs, then five fieldsmen allowed outside the circle for the remaining overs. This was shortened to ten overs in 2005, and the two five-over powerplays were introduced, although the bowling team had discretion over the timing for both. In 2008, the batting team was given discretion for the timing of one of the two powerplays. Finally, in 2011, the teams were restricted to completing the discretionary powerplays between the 16th and 40th overs; previously, the powerplays could take place at any time between the 11th and 50th overs.
The trial regulations also introduced a substitution rule that allowed the introduction of a replacement player at any stage in the match and until he was called up to play he assumed the role of 12th man. Teams nominated their replacement player, called a Supersub, before the toss. The Supersub could bat, bowl, field or keep wicket once a player was replaced; the replaced player took over the role of 12th man. Over the six months it was in operation, it became very clear that the Supersub was of far more benefit to the side that won the toss, unbalancing the game. Several international captains reached "gentleman's agreements" to discontinue this rule late in 2005. They continued to name Supersubs, as required, but they did not field them by simply using them as a normal 12th man. On 15 February 2006, the ICC announced their intention to discontinue the Supersub rule on 21 March 2006.
Teams with ODI status
The International Cricket Council (ICC) determines which teams have ODI status (meaning that any match played between two such teams under standard one-day rules is classified as an ODI).
The ten Test-playing nations (which are also the ten full members of the ICC) have permanent ODI status. The nations are listed below with the date of each nation's ODI debut shown in brackets:
- Australia (5 January 1971)
- England (5 January 1971)
- New Zealand (11 February 1973)
- Pakistan(11 February 1973)
- West Indies (5 September 1973)
- India (13 July 1974)
- Sri Lanka (7 June 1975)
- Zimbabwe (9 June 1983)
- Bangladesh (31 March 1986)
- South Africa (10 November 1991)
Since 2005, the ICC has granted temporary ODI status to six other teams (known as Associate/Affiliate members). Teams earn ODI status for a period of four years based on their performance in the quadrennial ICC World Cricket League – or, more specifically, based on the top six finishing positions at the ICC World Cup Qualifier, which is the final event of the World Cricket League. The following six teams currently have this status:
- Kenya (from 28 September 1996, until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
- Canada (from 1 January 2006, until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
- Ireland (from 1 January 2006, until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
- Netherlands (from 1 January 2006, until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
- Scotland (from 1 January 2006, until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
- Afghanistan (from 19 April 2009, until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
One other Associate Nation has held a four-year temporary ODI status as a result of World Cricket League performances, before being relegated after underperforming at the World Cup Qualifier:
The ICC occasionally granted associate members permanent ODI status without granting them full membership and Test status. This was originally introduced to allow the best associate members to gain regular experience in internationals before making the step up to full membership. First Bangladesh and then Kenya received this status. Bangladesh have since made the step up to Test status and full membership; but as a result of poor performances, Kenya's ODI status was reduced to temporary, and it must now perform at the World Cup Qualifiers to keep its ODI status.
The ICC can also grant special ODI status to all matches within certain high profile tournaments, with the result being that the following non-ODI countries have also participated in full ODIs:
- East Africa (1975 World Cup)
- United Arab Emirates (1994 Austral-Asia Cup, 1996 World Cup; Asia Cup 2004 and 2007)
- Namibia (2003 World Cup)
- Hong Kong (Asia Cup 2004 and 2008)
- United States (2004 ICC Champions Trophy)
Some teams who later gained temporary ODI status also fit into this category (e.g. Canada in the 1979 World Cup).
Finally, since 2005, three composite teams have played matches with full ODI status. These matches were:
- The World Cricket Tsunami Appeal, a once-off-match between the Asian Cricket Council XI vs ICC World XI in the 2004/05 season.
- The Afro-Asia Cup, two three-ODI series played in 2005 and 2007 Afro-Asia Cup between the Asian Cricket Council XI and the African XI.
- The ICC Super Series, a three-ODI series played between the ICC World XI and the then-top ranked Australian cricket team in the 2005/06 season.
Most ODI cricket takes place in a stand-alone series between two nations, immediately before or after a test series. Triangular series or quadrangular series are also common.
There are two major ODI tournaments which feature most or all permanent ODI teams, and often also associate members:
- Cricket World Cup, played every four years since 1975
- ICC Champions Trophy, played every two years since 1998
One Day International records
The record for the highest innings total in any List A limited overs match is 443 for nine by Sri Lanka against Netherlands in their One Day International 50-overs match at Amstelveen on July 4, 2006. The lowest team total is 35 all out by Zimbabwe against Sri Lanka in Harare, 2004.
The most runs scored by both sides in any List A limited overs match is 872: Australia, batting first, scored 434 for four in 50 overs, and yet were beaten by South Africa who scored 438 for nine with a ball to spare during their One Day International at Johannesburg in 2006.
The best bowling figures are 8-19 by Chaminda Vaas for Sri Lanka v Zimbabwe in Colombo, 2001-02 - he is the only player to take eight wickets in a One Day international. The best batting performance is a knock of 219 runs by Indian Virender Sehwag against the West Indies on 8 December 2011. He's the first captain and the second person so far to score a double century in One Day Internationals with the other being Indian batsman Sachin Tendulkar on 24 Feb 2010 who made the first ever one day double century off 147 balls against South Africa.
- ICC Test Championship
- One Day International records
- One Day International hat-tricks
- List of batsmen who have scored over 10000 One Day International cricket runs
- NatWest International One Day Series
- International Cricket Rules and Regulations at the ICC website
- ICC Chief Executives' Committee approves introduction of ODI innovations by Jon Long, ICC website, 25 June 2005, retrieved 25 November 2005
- "ODI changes to take effect in NatWest Challenge" by Cricinfo staff, Cricinfo, 30 June 2005, retrieved 25 November 2005
- "Those new one-day rules explained" by Cricinfo staff, Cricinfo, 8 July 2005, retrieved 25 November 2005